Module 2: Communication Skills


Basic Competency

Demonstrate communication skills in training


  1. Describe the principles of effective communication

  2. Describe the communication models in training

  3. Demonstrate nine basic skills components in teaching/ training


Communication Skills

  1. The principles of effective communication

  2. Communication models in training

  3. Components of teaching / training basic skills






5 mins

  • The facilitator welcomes the participants and opens the training with prayer

  • Informs the rules of training

  • The facilitator explains the topic and the purpose of the first session

Opening Information


20 mins

  • The facilitator asks two participants to come forward to communicate without being given any topic

  • Afterwards, ask 2 other participants to communicate with a topic and give them time to have a small talk first

  • Participants are asked to analyze the difference of the two communications demonstrated, to look for the the answer of what makes effective communication

  • Trainer reinforces with the principles of effective communication

Demonstration Question & Answers


30 mins

  • Facilitator raises an issue of communication model in training to the participants

  • Give participants 2-5 minutes the chance to think independently

  • When finished, ask them to discuss the same issue with the person next to them for 3-5 minutes (pair)

  • Finally, select a pair to express their opinions in front of the class (share)

  • Facilitator reinforces with communication models in training

Think, pair and share


30 mins

  • Trainer delivers the materials of 9 basic skills in teaching

  • Participants are asked to create training materials as a group to practice the 9 basic skills in teaching

  • 2 groups are selected to simulate the basic skills in teaching

  • Other participants will act as observers

  • Discuss the result of the observations

  • Facilitator reinforces with the 9 basic skill in teaching



5 mins

  • The facilitator asks one of the participants to reflect the implementation of the first session

First session reflection and closing

Reading Material


Communication is the main skill for someone to become a trainer. There are several things that need to be understood including the meaning and purpose of communication and Principles of Proper or Effective Communication. So is the case for the trainer of Contingency Plan Development Scenarios using OpenStreetMap (OSM) and QGIS / InaSAFE.

Communication in everyday life plays a very important part, this is because communication has the function to connect a person’s wishes to others. Specifically, communication runs four functions, i.e. the function of control, motivation, emotional expression and information.

Communication is generally defined as the process of creating the meaning of ideas or ideas presented. The trainer’s interests in training will naturally require effective communication, used as a mean to convey ideas and motivate someone to do something in accordance with the purpose of the training. The ideas will be presented in this training are all about disaster, in particular the Contingency Plan Development Scenarios using OpenStreetMap (OSM) and QGIS / InaSAFE. Related to this, the trainer has to have the basic skills in teaching or training because training is basically teaching the participants to be able to do something.

1. The principles of effective communication

Communication is generally defined as the process of creating the meaning of ideas or ideas presented. In this case communication requires at least 4 components or elements, i.e. (1) The sender or messenger/ communicator, (2) the message, (3) the recipient of the message/ communicant, (4) Media/ channel. In effective communication process, communicator and communicant not only performed linear communication, but also expected to performed circular communication.

Linear communication model is a process that consists of two straight lines, where the communication process starts from the communicator and ends at the communicant. The circular model of communication, on the other hand, is a communication process that not only starts from the communicator and ends at the communicant, but also pays attention to the feedback from the communicant, making the model a full circle process. This means that the trainer can be the source of information at one time and the recipient at another time, vice versa. Participants can be the recipient of information but also the source of information. So communication is a simultaneous notice or exchange.

The communication process indicates that the trainee can act both as the recipient of information/ message and the source of information/ message. But the trainer as the actor in the process of communication still has to control the training process. Therefore the trainer remains as the communicator, as communicator plays a very important part especially in controlling the course of communication, so that the message is well received by the recipient (communicant) or the participants. This is in accordance with the function of communication.

The function of communication according to Gordon I Zinmmerman in Thomas M. Scheidel (1976) is a function of the content, which involves the exchange of information we need to complete our task, and the function of relationship, which involves the exchange of information about how our relationship is with others. While the function of communication according to Thomas M. Scheidel (1976) is: “We communicate primarily to represent and support self-identity, to establish social contact, to influence others to feel, think and act as we want.

The two opinions above indicate that the purpose of communication is for the recipient to understand and comprehend the message conveyed by the messenger. Trainers are expected to explain the wish or the idea according to the purpose of the training to the participants with a simple but precise or accurate way. Here communication process is expected to pay attention to the feedback from the participants.

Communication is the message conveyed to the communicant (recipient) by the communicator (source) through certain channels either directly/ indirectly for the purpose of giving impact/ effect to the communicant as desired by the communicator. It goes through 5 stages, i.e. (1) Interpretation, (2) Encryption, (3) Delivery, (4) Acceptance, and (5) Feedback. To achieve the objective of communication, the principles of effective communication are also required. To have a smooth communication, it is necessary to use the principle of effective communication. Principles include Respect, Empathy, Audible, Clarity, and Humble.

  1. Respect.

    Respect is the positive feeling or respect for the listener. Everyone wants to be appreciated and respected and it has become the need of each individual. For that reason, the trainer is expected to respect the other person, or in this case the trainees.

  2. Empathy.

    Empathy is the ability to put yourself in situations or conditions faced by others. Communication will be well established in accordance with good psychological condition of our counterpart. To empathize means that the trainer has to put himself as a good listener, even before anyone else listens to him. And he must be able to feel what is perceived by the trainees.

  3. Audible.

    1. Audible implies that the message must be able to be heard and understood. In this matter what has to be done by the trainer are

    2. The message must be easily understood, using proper and correct grammar. Avoid languages unfamiliar to others.

    3. Convey the important part of the message by simplifying the message, straight to the point because most people don’t like listening to long-winded things.

    4. Use body language. Facial expressions, eye contact, hand gestures and body positions can be easily read by the interlocutor.

    5. Use illustrations or examples. Analogy really helps in conveying the message. You could use real life examples and illustrations.

  4. Clarity.

    Clarity is the clarity of the messages we convey. On this principle the trainer has set clear objectives before the training and uses a good tone of voice.

  5. Humble.

    Humility gives positive prestige for the communicator. In this case, humble is done by giving participants a chance to speak first and the trainer being a good listener. This attitude builds respect and eventually develops respect for the participants.

2. Communication models in training

Communication in training is a process of delivering communication conditioned for training purposes. The training process is essentially a communication process delivering messages containing training materials. In this regard the training is expected to use a circular model of communication, which is a process that not only starts from the communicator and ends at communicant, but also pays attention to the feedbacks from the communicant, to make the communication effective.

Effective communication in training is expected to use verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication is communication using verbal symbols/ words verbally. Non-verbal communication is the kind of communication not using verbal words, but gestures, body language, facial expressions, and eye contact. It could also be done with the use of objects such as clothes, haircuts and so forth.

Non-verbal communication will help the trainer to become an interesting speaker. Verbal communication has to be supported by means of talking such as intonation, giving emphasis, sound quality, style of speech and emotion. It also uses gestures, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, and supported by the use of objects such as clothes, haircuts, and so forth.

Training methods

Training is essentially a learning process that contains three elements, i.e. inputs (raw materials to be processed), process (activity to process inputs) and outputs (results that have been processed). Input of the training is the participants before starting the training, the training process is the interaction between the components of teaching and learning which are the objectives, materials, methods, participants, facilities and assessment. The output of the training is the participants after finishing the training.

A process is considered good if the output quality is better than the input. The learning process or training is a behavioral change, which occurs as the result of experience. This means it can only be called as a learning process if a person is showing different behavior. He needs to prove the new knowledge of facts, or do something which he couldn’t previously. Thus, the learning process puts someone from one capability or competence status to the other.

Communication model training is one component in the training process because it is actually a method implementation in training. To maximize output in the training, a trainer has to select a training method in accordance with the other components, such as the objectives, materials, trainees, facilities and assessment. So to be able to achieve the objectives set in the training, methods of training and communication should receive special attention in any training process.

A good trainer should understand the characteristics of participants in order for him to succeed in carrying out his teaching role. A trainer is expected to plan the learning process according to the circumstances and the personality of the trainees. A method is a way to achieve the objectives well. The methods can be classified into 5, i.e. direct learning, indirect learning, interactive learning, experiential learning, and independent learning.

  1. Direct learning: Direct learning is the kind of learning that is directed by the trainer. This strategy is effective to determine the information or skills to build incrementally. Direct learning is usually deductive. Examples of the direct learning methods are: lecture, discussion, demonstration and drill exercises.

  2. Indirect learning: Generally centered on the trainees. The role of the trainer shifted from a lecturer to a facilitator. The trainer manages the learning environment and gives the trainees the opportunity to get involved. Examples of indirect methods of learning are inquiry, case studies, problem solving, concept mapping.

  3. Interactive learning: Interactive learning emphasizes on discussion and sharing among participants. Discussion and sharing give trainees the opportunity to react to ideas, the trainer’s or his partner’s experience and approach and to build an alternative way to think and feel. Examples of this method are class discussions, small group discussions or projects, work in pairs.

  4. Experiential learning: Empirical learning is oriented on inductive activities, centered on the trainees, and is activity based. Personal reflection on the experience and planning formulation towards implementation in other contexts is a critical factor in an effective empirical learning. Examples of empirical learning method are role playing, observation / survey, and simulation.

  5. Independent learning: Independent learning is a teaching strategy that aims to develop individual initiative, self-reliance, and self improvement. The focus is on the trainees’ planning with the help from the trainer. Self-learning can also be done with a friend or in a small group. Examples of Independent learning methods are research projects and computer-based learning.

a. Methods in direct learning

Direct learning is usually identified with the lecture method, where learning is presumably making the participants less active. However, direct learning can still be used together with question and answer, demonstrations, and exercises. Furthermore, a few ways can be used to make more this method more effective, for example:

  • Participants review the training materials that have been studied and the new materials recently presented:

    • materials well managed part by part

    • use visual media (important to read)

  • Participants exercise with the trainer’s guidance.

  • Participants exercise independently

  • Participants’ improvement of skills/ knowledge are monitored periodically

Various methods can be developed when students receive an explanation from the teacher, among others:

  1. Example and analogy: A trainer provides examples and illustrations associated with the materials. He can also make comparisons between participants’ experiences with the training materials.

  2. Games: A trainer uses games in learning. The games are expected to be in accordance with the training topic. Examples of them would be guessing pictures, mystery in a box, or various types of quizzes from TV can be implemented in a training class with some modifications (e.g. who wants to millionaires, GameZone, word games, etc.).

  3. Response card: Trainer asks participants to answer questions on a card or piece of paper anonymously. Question cards or answer cards can be developed. On the cards participants get different questions and they would be asked to answer by raising hands; use open-ended, productive or imaginative questions. On the answer cards the participants get answer cards, he would rasie his hand when the card matches the trainer’s questions; use open-ended, productive or imaginative questions.

  4. Polls: A trainer can conduct a short survey to obtain data quickly. This can be done with a verbal survey, for example by asking participants to raise their hands or lift the answer cards

  5. Problems: Trainer asks problems related with training topic.

  6. Demonstrations: Trainer or participants can demonstrate something according to the topic by using gestures or properties.

  7. Review newspaper or news: Participants are asked to review newspaper or news from other readings.

  8. Brainstorm: Participants are asked to argue about something related with the training topics. Opinions will be accommodated for with conclusions drawn on the subject matter discussed.

The method can be developed after the participants received proper explanation from the trainer, among others:

  1. Sharing notes: after a series of events trainee compare their notes with other colleagues’

  2. Q&A: participants are given the opportunity to ask questions related to the concept and its application. If there are no questions from the participants, the trainer can ask them first.

  3. Headline: trainer summarizes lessons with key words to be easily remembered.

Methods to determine participants’ mastery of the concepts that have been studied

  1. One minute paper: This activity can be done at the end of training. Ask the participants to take out a piece of paper. Ask an open-ended or closed question related with the concepts that have been studied. Give one or two minutes for participants to answer.

  2. Reflection: ask one or two participants to come forward and express their impressions towards the learning. Reflection can also provoke feelings and difficulty in following the study.

  3. Quiz: participants raise several issues or questions related with the concept and ask other participants to answer. Quiz can be done by including the name of the participants or anonymously. Quiz can also be used with competition, puzzles, or the like. Quiz can be done verbally; using open-ended, productive, or imaginative questions.

  4. Tournament: participants compete in groups to solve problems related to the concepts that have been studied. The winning group will get a certain reward.

  5. Review: Ask participants to review the lessons with others or give them a review test scores.

b. Indirect learning method

  1. Inquiry: participants conduct observation. Based on the result, they may ask questions. Furthermore, participants formulate allegations, and collect data. Based on the data, participants are asked to conclude.

  2. Problem solving: Each participant is asked to formulate a problem clearly and concisely, identifying factors that cause the problem, collect required information (facts and knowledge), determine various solutions and choose the most appropriate one, test the chosen solution, and review the result.

  3. Trading: Each participant writes down one thing (e.g. experience, creative ideas, questions, opinion, etc.) on a piece of paper, then stick it up on his shirt. Walk around to sell and buy (read) the results of others. Set a rule that every work has to be sold and bought. Classically, present the result in turn. Trainer will provide reinforcement.

  4. Case study analysis: participants are given a case to be solved either individually or in groups based on data, facts or concepts they have learned in class.

  5. Evaluating a friend’s work: it can be done after developing a product. Participants generally use a rubric to evaluate the results of his friend’s work

c. Interactive learning method

  1. Group discussion: Trainer asks participants to form groups of three or more to share information.

  2. Think, pair and share: propose a problem to the participants. Give participants 2-5 minutes chance to think. When finished, ask them to discuss the same issue with the person next to them for 3-5 minutes (pair). Finally, select a pair to express their opinions in front of the class (share).

  3. Group investigation: Participants form groups. Trainer calls the leader of the groups and gives different materials/ task. Each group will discuss the task cooperatively and will perform investigations. Upon completion, a representative will present the results of the discussion. Trainer will provide reinforcement.

  4. TGT (Team Game Tournament) method: Trainer presents new material. Participants form study groups heterogeneously. Each group will participate in academic tournament. Each will represent the group in the tournament. Give reward to the winning team.

  5. Jigsaw: Trainer prepares a number of tasks matching the number of groups. Participants will form groups with the number of members equal to the number of groups (participants have to memorize the group members). Each group member will be given different part of the materials. Participants from different groups will form new groups and discuss their parts. Upon completion of discussions with a group of experts, each group member will go back to the original group and, in turn, teach/ report the discussion result to other group members. Participants randomly present all the tasks given by the trainer. Reinforcement.

  6. Debate: The trainer divides the participants into two debate groups of pros and cons. Each group will read the materials that will be debated. Appoint one member of the pros group to speak and rebutted by a member of the cons, and so on. Trainer writes down ideas from the debate on a board the number of ideas the trainer expected has been met. The trainer adds more unrevealed ideas. From the ideas on the board, the trainer asks participants to draw conclusion/ summary by referring to the competency desired.

  7. STAD (Student Team Achievement Division): Learning from trainer. Participants form groups. Each group discusses issues given (each participant should understand the group’s answer). One person from each group will work on the questions (quiz). Scores of each member will determine the score of the group. Reinforcement.

  8. Collaborative learning group: participants form heterogeneous groups of 3-6 people. Ask one of the participants to become the leader and another to take note. Give participants the opportunity to learn collaboratively. The result will be submitted in the form of a written report.

  9. Learn in pairs: Trainer asks participants to perform tasks or discussions with friends nearby in pairs. Pairs are suitable for learning complicated tasks.

d. Experiential learning method

  1. Role play: each group is asked to design a role play based on the concept being studied. Groups will respond to other groups’ role play result.

  2. Simulation/ exercise: after participants learnt about certain motoric skills, they will randomly be asked to exercise the skills they have learnt in class.

e. Independent learning

Project: Project method is a way of presenting the lessons, starting from a problem where the solution requires a review of various point of views. The rationale for the use of this method is that the problem can only be solved by different school of thoughts or knowledge. Only problems that need unit problem solving can be solved with project method.

3. Components of basic skills in teaching / training

In interaction or face-to-face meeting with the trainees, trainer requires some basic teaching skills. It is absolutely necessary to help the trainer in playing the role in educational interaction. The trainer’s teaching basic skills are not different than the teachers who teach in the classroom. Those basic skills are:

  1. Skill to open and close the session

  2. Explanation skill

  3. Inquiry basic skill

  4. Skill to make variations

  5. Skills to provide reinforcement

  6. Skills to manage the class

  7. Skills to guide a small group discussion

  8. Individual teaching skill

  9. Skill of small groups

a. Skill to open and close the session

Definition and Purpose

Opening a session is associated with the trainer creating conducive mental atmosphere and attracting participants’ attention to focus on what will be studied. While closing the session is when the trainer ending the core of the activities, which is giving an overall picture of what has been studied, knowing the participants, and the trainer’s rate of success in the training process. Opening and closing of the session have are meant to:

  1. attract interests and motivate participants on the task at hand

  2. enable participants to know the limits of the task at hand

  3. enable participants to find out the approach that is going to be used

  4. enable participants to determine the relationship between mastered experiences with new things to be learned

  5. give the participants the possibility to combine facts, skills, and concepts covered in an event

  6. enable participants to determine the level of success

Components of Opening the Session Skill

Opening a session can be done by:

  1. Attracting participants’ interest

    A few ways can be done by the trainer to attract the participants’ interest, among others:

    1. Variation of training style and patterns of interaction

    2. The use of training aids

  2. Motivating

    Creating motivation can be done by:

    1. Showing warmth and enthusiasm

    2. Creating curiosity

    3. Expressing opposite ideas

    4. Paying attention to the participants’ interests

  3. Giving references

    Giving references is an effort to give clear picture of the things that will be studied by means of inserting a short series of specific and relevant alternatives, by:

    1. Expressing the objectives and limitation of task

    2. Advising steps to be taken, reminding the subject matter to be discussed

    3. Asking questions

  4. Making connections

    Some of the trainer’s efforts in making connections:

    1. Making links between relevant aspects of training with the materials known to participants

    2. Comparing or contrasting the new knowledge and the ones known to them

    3. Explaining the concept first and then the detailed description

Basic Skills Components of Closing the Session

Closing the session is intended to obtain a complete picture at the end of the activity, and to determine the participants’ level of achievement or the participants’ success rate. There are a few ways to that can be done in closing the session, among others:

  1. Review the core content of the session and making a summary

  2. Evaluate the various forms of evaluation, for example:

    1. Demonstrate skills

    2. Ask participants to apply new ideas in other situations

    3. Explore the participants’ opinions

    4. Provide written questions

Use Principles

A few principles that need to be considered by a trainer when opening and closing the session are:

  1. Significance

  2. To draw participants’ attention or motivation, a trainer has to select a way relevant with the content and the objective of the teaching

  3. Sequential and continuous

  4. Activities taken by trainer in introducing and summarizing the main points of the lessons should be an integral part, the link between one part and another or with the participants’ experience should be clear

b. Explanation skill


Explaining/ describing something is presenting verbal information that is organized systematically to show an association with one another. The emphasis of explaining is the participants’ reasoning process and not indoctrination. Examples: providing an overview of a situation, revealing causes of an event, etc. The success of explaining is marked by the participants’ understanding of something. The structure of teaching materials in explaining is usually planned in a way that can be controlled. Logical description, the skill to reveal the materials and the strategy to organize the materials are the main procedure to explain.

Explaining is linked with the effort to create linkages between the known and the unknown. A full explanation is always accompanied by evidence and the cause and effect is based on the logical relationships between generalization, provisions, and realities according to the participants’ perception system.

The objective of explanation skills are to:

  1. Provide understanding to others

  2. Make participants think logically and systematically

  3. Train participants to think based on the causes and reasons

  4. Train participants in making decisions independently

  5. Instill the right way of thinking attitude

  6. Guide participants to a clear understanding in solving the question: What, Why and How

  7. Engage participants in thinking to solve problems

  8. Obtain feedback from participants based on levels of understanding

  9. Assist participants to use the process of transmission and evidences in solving problems

Components of Explanation Skills

In the planning process, the components of explanation skills include:

  1. Planning explanation

    In planning explanation, we need to pay attention to the contents of the message that will be conveyed and the readiness of the recipient. Things related to the content of the message (the material) including:

    1. Analyzing problems holistically

    2. Determining the type of existing relationship between the linked elements

    3. Using the law, formulation, or generalization that is suitable with the determined relationship

    What we need to pay attention when associated with the message recipient (participant) is to whom the explanation will be presented to, such as age, gender, ability, social background, and participants’ learning environment. Thus what needs to be considered in connection with the recipient of this message is:

    1. The explanation must be relevant to the participants’ problems

    2. The explanation has to be easily accepted by the participants

    3. The explanation has to match the participants’ wealth of knowledge at the time

  2. Presenting explanation

    A few things to notice in presenting an explanation are:

    1. Clarity, can be achieved by:

      • The articulation has to be clear, the words, the idioms and the voice

      • Conversation has to go smooth by avoiding unnecessary words, e.g. ee, aa, etc.

      • Sentences have to be arranged with good grammar by avoiding incomplete sentences

      • Technical or new terms should be defined clearly

      • Using pause time (silent) to see whether the explanation has been understood by the participants

    2. Usage of examples and illustrations, including

      • Inductive: Example/ illustration concept/ generalization

      • Deductive: Concept/ generalization examples/ illustrations

    3. Provision of emphasis, including the use of voice variation, mimic, gestures, summary, repetition, giving symbols, etc.

    4. It is important to show important parts that need attention from others

    5. Organization, including creating relationship between examples, clear generalization and summarizing during or at the end of the presentation

    6. Feedback, including a behavioral change from the participants and providing the opportunity for participants to answer questions as well as expressing opinions on whether the explanation given by the trainer is useful

c. Inquiry basic skill

Definition and Purpose

Asking a question can be interpreted as a greeting delivered with the intention of requesting a response from others. In the teaching process, the given response reflects the extent to which level of knowledge the participants have. So asking questions in the session is important because the trainer’s skill in asking effective questions will be the stimulus that will stimulate thinking skills and will encourage participants.

The purpose of asking includes:

  1. Stimulate participants’ thinking skills

  2. Assist participants in learning

  3. Direct the participants independent interaction level on level of self-learning interaction.

  4. Increase participants’ thinking component of low-level components to a higher level

  5. Assist participants in achieving the learning objectives

Components of Inquiry Basic Skill

  1. Basic skills

    Components included in the inquiry basic skill are:

    1. Disclosure of questions clearly and concisely

    2. Details in asking questions so that participants can answer correctly, the trainer needs to provide information that will help make examples of the question

    3. Convergence towards the accepted answer

    4. Convergence can be done by means of: providing a broad question (open-ended) which will convert into a narrow question

    5. Transfer of turns to answer

    6. Transfer of turns can be done by asking different participants to answer the same question

    7. The spread of questions

    For certain purposes the coach can throw the question to the whole class, to a participant or spread from one participant to the others.

    1. Provision of time to think

      In asking question, a trainer has to stay silent a moment before appointing a participant to answer the questions

    2. Provision of guidance

      For participants having difficulty in answering the question, a strategy to provide guidance needs to be given. The strategy includes the disclosure of the question with other form or manner, asking other simpler questions, and repeats the previous explanations.

  2. Advance level skills, components added:

    1. The conversion of rate of cognitive guidance in answering the question

    2. To develop the participants’ way of think we need cognitive level of guidance questions (recall, comprehension, application, systematic analysis, and evaluation)

    3. Setting the order of questions

    4. The questions asked have to have a logical sequence

    5. The use of tracing questions

    6. To find out to which extent the participants’ skill in regards to the answer, the tracing skill that needs to be mastered by the trainer. Tracing can be done by asking participants to give explanation on the answer, giving a reason, providing relevant examples, etc.

    7. The skill to encourage interaction between participants

d. Skills to provide reinforcement

Definition and Purpose

There are two kinds of reinforcements, positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is the trainer’s behavior in responding positively to a particular behavior of participants that allows such behavior to reoccur. While negative reinforcement is the removal or a reduction of unpleasant stimuli to encourage the reoccurrence of the behavior that arises as the result of the reduction or removal.

The purpose of reinforcement is to:

  1. increase the participants’ attention

  2. Smoothen/ facilitate the learning process

  3. Generating and maintaining motivation

  4. Controlling or changing disturbing attitudes and behavior

  5. Developing and organizing themselves in learning

  6. Driving the way of thinking that is good / divergent and personal initiative

Reinforcement is given during:

  1. Attention to the coach, friend, or the object of discussion

  2. The study, reading, working on the board behavior

  3. The completion of work

  4. The quality of work/ tasks (grooming, beauty)

  5. Repair/ improvement tasks

  6. Independent tasks

Components of Reinforcement Basic Skills

The use of in-class skill components should be carefully selected, tailored to the participants’ ages, capability level, needs and background, the purpose and nature of the task. Reinforcement must be meaningful from the participants.

Some components of providing reinforcement are:

  1. Positive reinforcement

    1. Verbal reinforcement

      Reinforcement can be verbal words that are spoken by the teacher. Examples of it are good, well, precise, I appreciate the income, very intelligent mind, etc.

    2. Gestural reinforcement

      This reinforcement is given in the form of gestures, facial or limb movements that can give the impression to the students. For example: Lifting an eyebrow, smiling, leering eyes, applause, nodding in agreement, raising the thumb sign, etc.

    3. Approaching reinforcement

      This reinforcement is done by approaching students to express the trainer’s concern for the work, behavior or appearance of the participants. For example: the trainer sits in a group, stands next to a participant. Often the trainer approaches participants to give them verbal reinforcement.

    4. Reinforcement through touches

      A trainer can express appreciation to the participants by patting them, shaking their hands or raising their hands.

    5. Reinforcement by providing fun activities

      This reinforcement may be in the form of asking participants to help his friends when he has finished his work properly, participants are asked to lead activities, etc.

    6. Symbolic reinforcement or with objects

      This form of reinforcement is the trainer’s effort in using a variety of symbols to support the reinforcement of positive behavior of participants. This form of reinforcement include commentary written in the work book, giving stamps, money data collection, star, percentage and so on.

  2. Negative reinforcement

    The way this is done is the same with positive reinforcement, except that it is not pleasant for the participants in order to reduce or remove their actions.

How to use the components:

  1. Varies

  2. Provide better reinforcement directly and immediately

  3. For certain purposes the use of reinforcement can never be given. For example, for participants who answered incorrectly, reinforcement is given to participants in the effort of answering but not on the quality of the answer. The trainer acts should be followed by asking the first participant to imitate the answer or giving consideration to his answer

  4. Providing reinforcement is a behavior that is easier said than done. Therefore intensive exercises are done by the trainer candidates.

e. Basic skills in Using Variations

Definition and Purpose

Using variations is defined as the trainer’s effort in in the context of the training process that aims to overcome the participants’ boredom in following the training, so that participants always show perseverance, as well as enthusiasm and active participation.

Use in class is for:

  1. Maintaining and improving the participants in issues related to the learning aspects

  2. Improving the possibility of motivation and curiosity through investigation and exploration

  3. Establishing a positive attitude towards the trainer

  4. The possibility of individual participants to be served so that it gives the ease in learning

  5. Encouraging learning activities that engage participants in a variety of activities. Learning, interesting and useful in a variety of cognitive levels

Components of Making Variations Skill

  1. Variation in training style

    Variety of trainer’s teaching styles include these components:

    1. Voice variation: loud weak, fast slow, high low, great and small

    2. Concentration of attention. Focusing attention can be done verbally, or by using capital symbols

    3. Silence. By the time the trainer has finished explaining, activities are often observed to pause abruptly in a short moment

    4. There is a time of silence when the trainer is moving from one teaching segment to the other

    5. Eye contact. To improve the relationship with the students and avoid impersonal things, then eye contact is required during teaching process

    6. Gestures and lyrics: the change in face expression, head movement, body movement is very important in communication process

    7. The change in trainer’s position. The participants’ attention can be improved by the change in trainer’s position in the communication interaction process

  2. Variations in the use of media and teaching materials

    Variations in any type of media or variations between media type need to be considered in the learning process

  3. Variations of interaction pattern and participant’s activity

    The range of interaction can move between the two extreme poles, the trainer as the center of activities and participants as the center of activities. Changes in the interaction between the two poles will result in an activity pattern that is experienced by the participants. From the description above, it is clear that the skills in using variations are wider compared with the skill of providing reinforcement and inquiry skills.

The principles that need to be understood

The principles which will need the use of natural variation among others are:

  1. Changes have to be smooth and accurate

  2. The use of variation technique should be smooth and accurate

  3. The use of the variation components must be completely structured and planned in advance

  4. The use of variation components to be flexible and spontaneous based on participant feedback

f. Classroom Management Skills


Classroom management is the creation of conditions that enable the training management to take place optimally. This is in contrast to the management of learning, i.e. the teaching itself involving the material components, methods, and training aids in achieving the learning objectives.

Examples of learning management problems are unclear learning objectives, the subject matter is too easy or too hard, medium or inappropriate learning methods, the materials are not in systematic order, etc. While examples of classroom management problems are sleepy participants, crowded classroom, participants not doing the tasks, participants teasing others, broken seats, dirty classroom, etc.

Managing a class is a function of the trainer as a manager. Management means the organization or management in order for things to run smoothly, effectively, and efficiently. So in this case the function of a trainer is as a manager or an organizer. While the purpose of managing the class is: (1) to create and maintain an optimal learning condition, (2) to restore in the event of disruption to the learning process

Classroom Management Approaches

Various classroom management approaches are:

  1. Behavior Modification approach

  2. Social climate approach

  3. Group process approach

Behavior Modification Approach

Behavior modification approach departs from behavior psychology with the basic assumption that human behavior either good or bad, to a certain extent, is the result of learning process. Thus, human behavior can be modified.

Modifications include using positive reinforcement techniques, negative reinforcement, deletion, and punishment. Positive reinforcement is a response to a behavior, which can increase the likelihood of reoccurrence of such behavior. Negative reinforcement is a reduction to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus to encourage the recurrence of a behavior that arises as a result of the reduction or removal.

Principle of use:

  1. Avoidance of painful stimulus

  2. Clear target

  3. Provision of immediate reinforcement

  4. Presenting various stimulus

  5. Enthusiasm

  6. Combined with other techniques

Social Climate Approach (Social-Emotional Climate)

Social-emotional climate approach departs from clinical psychology and counseling, with the basic assumption that the teaching and learning activities are effective and efficient when there are social-emotional relationships between participants and trainers and between participants. This can be pursued by means of:

  1. Open attitude

  2. Acceptance and respect of participants

  3. Empathy

  4. Attitude to discuss the situation violations and violators

  5. Democratic attitudes

Group Process Approach

Group process approach departs from social psychology and group dynamics, with the basic assumption that the effective and efficient teaching and learning activities take place in the context of a group, i.e. the class. For that task the trainer has to create a class that has strong ties and can work effectively and efficiently.

To create a good group bonding atmosphere we need the establishment of common goals in the group, clear rules to bind the participants into groups, and leadership within the group. And to maintain a healthy working environment, the trainer needs to do for example:

  1. Encourage and equalize participation

  2. Work out a compromise

  3. Reduce tension

  4. Clarify communications

  5. Addressing conflicts between individuals or groups

  6. Showed that the presence of the participants are physically and psychologically

  7. Describe sanctions


Arend, Ricard. 1997. Classroom Instructional Management. New York: The Mc

Graw-Hill Company.

Brent D. Ruben dan Lea P. Stewart. 2013. Komunikasi dan Perilaku Manusia

(Edisi Kelima), terjemahan Ibnu Hamad. Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada.

Bahri Syaeful dan Aswan Zain. 2006. Strategi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta :

Rineka Cipta.

Budimansyah, D. 2002. Model Pembelajaran dan Penilaian Portofolio.

Bandung: Genesindo.

Joyce, B. and Weil, M. (1980) Models of Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, New

Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Sanjaya Wina. 2007. Strategi Pembelajaran: Berorientasi Standar Proses

Pendidikan. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Thomas M. Sheidel. 1976. Speech Communication and Human Interaction. 2nd

Edition. Glenville, III. Scott, Foresman & Co.